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Vol. 7, No. 7
(626) 350-1500 Ext 102  

Extraordinary achievements demand extraordinary leaders.

THIS MONTH’S FREE DOWNLOADABLE BOOK: The Management of Men by Edward L. Munson (801 pages)


Recent Linked Articles by Dr. Cohen not  Published  in the Journal of Leadership Applications:

What Everyone Knows is Frequently Wrong from Human Resources IQ

Tough Times from Leadership Excellence

Why Leadership is a Marketing Job from Human Resources IQ

What to do about Office Politics from Human Resources IQ

Don’t Be Afraid of Getting Laid Off from Human Resources IQ

The Most Important Leadership Decision from Human Resources IQ

What are You Going to Do About It? from Human Resources IQ

Peter Drucker Says Leaders Make Themselves from Training Magazine

Leadership Laws – It was Drucker’s Favorite Book   from Leadership Excellence Magazine

People Have no Limits – Even after Failure from Human Resources IQ

A Sure Way to Fail from

What to Do about the Crisis from

Drucker: Every Leader Must Declare his Expectations from

Peter Drucker of the Value of Ignorance from Performance and Profits

Peter Drucker’s Story of Two Vice Presidents (Why What Everybody Knows Is Frequently Wrong) from Moving Ahead

Webcast: The Lost Lessons of Peter Drucker from The American Management Association

Five Things William Cohen Has Learned From Peter Drucker from CIO Magazine

How the World’s Most Celebrated Management Consultant Got His Title from Industry Week

The Night Peter Drucker Declared He Was Not My Father from

Drucker’s Lost Lesson from Training Magazine

Effective Leadership in Leadership Excellence

Other Recent Articles; Not Linked

“Leading in Crisis,” The Keystone Review, March 2009, Vol.2

“What Drucker Taught Us about Social Responsibility,” Leader to Leader Journal, Winter 2009, pp.29 -34

“What Drucker Taught Us about Social Responsibility and Leadership,” Creativity and Innovation, Peter F. Drucker Society of Korea, Summer, 2008, pp.1-30.



© 2009 William A. Cohen, PhD  


On the evening of March 3rd, 2002, Senior Chief Petty Officer Britt Slabinski led his seven-man SEAL reconnaissance team via helicopter onto the snow-covered, 10,000 foot mountaintop known as Takur Ghar, to establish a position in support of U.S. Army forces advancing against the enemy on the valley floor. His unit was conducting combat operations against the Taliban during Operation Anaconda, Sahi-Kot Valley, Afghanistan, in support of Operation Enduring Freedom. As their helicopter hovered over the mountain it was met by sudden rocket propelled grenade (RPG) and small arms fire from entrenched enemy forces on the ground. As a result of several RPG hits, a member of Slabinski’s team was blown from the helicopter right into the midst of the enemy positions. The badly damaged helicopter made a controlled crash. Senior Chief Slabinski  immediately established security at the crash site and got his remaining team members and the aircrew organized. They were evacuated by another helicopter to a support base. Britt Slabinski wasn’t done. He was fully aware of the overwhelming enemy forces on the mountain, but he also knew now that his missing team member was alive, but fighting for his life. He expected positive results and so his men willingly followed him back to the danger zone.

Remounting a fresh helicopter, they headed back to the snow-covered mountaintop dominated by numerically superior enemy forces. After a dangerous helicopter insertion of the SEAL Team onto the mountaintop, Senior Chief Slabinski led his small band into a close quarter firefight. He attacked multiple enemy positions, personally clearing one bunker and killing the enemies within. But the team was caught in a withering crossfire from other bunkers and other advancing enemy forces. Several of the team were hit. This was an extremely difficult situation. Some might have even have thought of surrender, but despite everything that had happened and the odds against them, Slabinski expected to win. Collecting his wounded, he led an difficult movement through the mountainous terrain, constantly under fire, covering over one kilometer in waist-deep snow to a defensible position. There he re-organized the team and took care of his wounded. Slabinski directed the defense of this position through countless attacks until, with air support, the enemy was totally defeated. Senior Chief Petty Officer Slabinski had saved the lives of his wounded men and despite being outnumbered, had defeated the enemy and captured Takur Ghar. He was able to do this because he had no doubt. He expected to win.[1]


Why You Must Expect To Win

It is true that a leader who expects positive results may not actually get them due to circumstances beyond his or her control. But it is equally true that a leader who does not expect positive results will not get them. So, while expecting positive results may not always lead to success, failing to expect positive results will almost enviably lead to failure.

What a General Showed Us 2000 Years Ago

It was more than forty years ago that Peter Drucker advised us to read “the first systematic book on leadership” in his own book, The Practice of Management.[2] These were part of the writings of Xenophon. Xenophon was a Grecian general and he wrote several good books about battle leadership that caused Drucker to write that in two thousand years, all the latest research etc, was nothing compared to what had already been written by the ancients on the subject. One of Xenophon’s books was Anabasis. One source translates this title as Expedition Up Country.[3] From 401 to 400 B.C., Xenophon led 10,000 Greek soldiers in retreat from Ancient Persia to the Greek Black Sea colony of Trapezus more than 1000 miles away. They faced an enemy who was greatly superior in numbers, and they were continually opposed by unfriendly tribes through the march which took five months.

What happened was this. Cyrus the Younger, son of Cyrus the Great, had enlisted these Greek troops to help him overthrow his brother, Artaxerxes, who was king of Persia. At the Battle of Cunaxa, they fought a Persian army many times their size. The Greek general Clearchus, changed front, advanced against the right wing of the Persian army and for all practical purposes, won the battle. However, during the battle, Cyrus was killed. Since Cyrus, pretender to the Persian throne was dead, there was little point to the victory of his troops. The Persians in Cyrus’s former army deserted to Artaxerxes. Artaxerxes told the Greeks that since Cyrus was dead, there was no reason for their continuing to fight. To use two cliques in one sentence, Artaxerxes was willing to “forgive and forget,” and to “live and let live.” He offered a truce which was accepted by Clearchus and the other Greek mercenaries. Artaxerses told them they could return to their own country unhindered. To celebrate their truce, he invited all of the Greek generals to a great banquet. They were told to leave their weapons outside. Once Artaxerses had them under his control, he murdered them. He then offered a truce to the surviving Greek army.

Xenophon had been a young staff officer. He gathered the other surviving officers together and under his guidance they elected new generals. Xenophon himself was elected general-in-chief. Some Greek officers wanted to work out some sort deal with Artaxerses. They were discouraged as they saw no way of marching such a great distance through unfriendly country, not to mention the superior army that they faced which was much larger than before, while their own force was without experienced generals and smaller. Xenophon assembled the officers and spoke to them. “All of these soldiers have their eyes on you, and if they see that you are downhearted they will become cowards, while if you are yourselves clearly prepared to meet the enemy and if you call on the rest to do their part, you can be sure that they will follow you and try to be like you.”[4]

Xenophon expected positive results. Through his positive expectancy, he convinced the other new generals and the army that they would return to their homes even though they had lost their experienced and proven generals, were numerically inferior to their enemy, had thousands of miles of unfriendly territory to traverse, and had no supplies of food and water. Because Xenophon expected positive results, 10,000 followers expected positive results as well. They escaped from Artaxerses and followed Xenophon on the most amazing march in history. They completed their journey successfully despite countless battles and hardships. No wonder Drucker called our attention to Xenophon’s work as containing important lessons for leadership in business.

How Expecting Positive Results Saved Supercuts

Expecting positive results can work miracles in business. Supercuts, Inc. was a revolutionary concept in the 1970’s when it was introduced. It replaced the old barbershop and beauty shop with low cost, no-nonsense, unisex, hairstyling salons. At first, Supercuts was extremely successful. It grew and its franchises expanded across the country. However, at some point its leaders grew fearful. They feared losing all they had gained. They no longer expected positive results. They feared failure after their initial success. According to Major General Hoyt S. Vandenberg, Jr, USAF, retired, all leaders fall into two groups: the hunters and the hunted. Hunted leaders are trying to avoid failure . . . in their hearts they lack self-confidence and don’t expect to succeed. Hunter leaders expect to win. They are enthusiastically hunting success . . . and they fully expect to find it.[5]

Once hunters, Supercuts’ leaders became the hunted. They feared the worse would happen. As frequently happens when leaders are fearful, exactly what they were afraid of began to occur. Probably, this was due to their own actions. In attempting to protect their profits, they started to save money by cutting corners. Franchisees felt short-changed in advertising and other support. As a result, relations between the corporation and their franchisees grew cool. The franchisees formed an association to protect their interests. Corporate leaders attempted to restrict them from doing this. The result was a class action law suit against the corporation. By 1987, Supercuts was in deep trouble. Sales were down. Morale was low. The company was floundering. Some business-watchers predicted bankruptcy. At the last minute, an investment company bought the company and brought in a new CEO. Her name was Betsy Burton.

Burton met with the franchisees even before the deal went through. They were so impressed with her openness and positive expectations, that they dropped the law suit without her asking. Why? Previously, the franchisees asked to set up a joint council with company management. Supercuts’ previous leaders wouldn’t even consider it. They knew it was a good idea, but they were afraid to be thought of as agreeing with the franchises. Another words, they were not real. Betsy Burton not only agreed, but offered to hold all meetings at corporate expense. She took these actions because she knew who she was and what she believed in. She was unafraid to show it, and she expected to succeed. She expected profits to go up, not down. She was a hunter, not a hunted leader.

Within sixteen months, profits rose by 10%. Within three years, franchisees had double-digit sales increases. Revenue grew from $126 million to over $170 million. The corporation added more than one hundred new franchisees. Noted one: “My stores are registering record sales and profits. Equally important, people are feeling optimistic about the company. It’s nice to be part of something that’s heading up again.” Franchisees, employees, and management all expected positive results. Betsy Burton, who always expected positive results, expected them first.

Become a Positive Thinker

You can think positively, or negatively. It’s your choice. However, negative leaders do not expect positive results. On the contrary, they frequently expect the worst to happen . . . and it does. I don’t know whether this is some kind of magic or what, but it doesn’t matter. It’s a fact, what we think of we get, whether it’s positive or negative. It’s not that the successful leaders I surveyed and spoke with were some kind of Pollyannas. Not at all. Some were iron hard and steely eyed-realists. But that didn’t stop them from thinking positively. And that made them expect to be successful and to win. What I noticed was this. These positive thinkers kept their eye on the ball (what they wanted, their goals, tasks, etc.) and not what they didn’t want (what they wanted to avoid). To do this, they would ask themselves – “What is the worst that can happen?” They would except that as a result if all went wrong and then plunge ahead and do what needed to be done.  Now, do you think that someone who has already considered the worse that can happen, accepted it, even planned ahead as to what action to take if the “worse comes to worse” is less fearful and thinks more positively? You bet! No wonder such individuals expect to win.

General Colin Powell Succeeded Despite All Odds

One of the most positive thinking military men I have ever met is Colin Powell, former Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS). I met General Powell when he addressed the Los Angeles Times Management Conference in March of 1993, before he retired from his position as Chairman of the JCS. I had been invited to do a piece on combat leadership for the Times internal newsletter for managers. As it happened, General Powell was slated to speak to the management conference shortly after my article was scheduled to appear. David Laventhol, then Publisher and CEO of the Times and Dickson Louie, a fellow graduate of the University of Chicago Business School who was conference president invited me to attend the conference and meet General Powell. I was delighted and honored to accept.

I found General Powell to be positive and upbeat. I was surprised at his high energy.  His executive officer told me that it was his third speech that day, and these were in three different cities. The first was in Texas, and the second in San Francisco. Here it was, three o’clock in the afternoon, his third speech in cities hundreds of miles apart, and Powell showed no sign of fatigue.

Everyone knew he was in for some tough questioning. One of President Bill Clinton’s promises prior to his election was over the issues of gays in the military. The rumor was that it was the Chiefs of Staff who had convinced the President to adopt a compromise position. There were other issues. Why couldn’t the military budget be cut more and faster? What was the future of the National Guard? Many were unhappy with the way they perceived the Army National Guard “round-out” brigades had been treated during the Gulf War. Powell was facing the media in the heart of “the enemy camp.” He could be in for a rough time.

Well, it didn’t happen like that. Powell was positive and in control right from the start. CEO Laventhol treated him to an elaborate introduction.  During his accolades of Powell, Laventhol also revealed that before going into the newspaper business, he had once been a private in the Signal Corps. Powell came to the podium and thanked Laventhol for his introduction. Then, with a twinkle in his eye he added, “And, Private, that introduction was done very well.” Powell gave a five-star speech. His positive thinking won over every one of the 300 or so senior managers.

Yet Powell’s career was not without difficulty. He was not an “affirmative action success story” as some have suggested. There was real, live bigotry and prejudice as Colin Powell rose through the ranks. There was no quota system to assist him. Powell made it to the very pinnacle of the U.S. armed forces on sheer guts, an incredibly positive attitude, and his own merit. Those who followed General Powell became positive thinkers, because he was a positive thinker. His positive thinking culminated in leading our armed forces during the most successful major military action since World War II.

While still Chairman, General Powell spoke to kids in the ghettos. And because he couldn’t reach them all, he had 10,000 video tapes made which went to high schools across the country.  Here’s what General Powell told them. “There’s nothing you can’t accomplish if you’re willing to put your mind to it, if you’re willing to set aside the negative influences that are out there, if you believe in yourself, if you’re committed to yourself, and if you believe in this country, and if you let nothing hold you back.

“Don’t let the fact that you’re Hispanic or black or any other attribute hold you back. Just go for it. I did it; you can do it. Don’t look for a silver bullet. Don’t look for ‘a role model I’m going to follow.’ Be your own role model. Believe in yourself.”[6]

Well of course, today we know that President Barack Obama followed Colin Powell’s advice. He won even though he went up against others of far more “name recognition” and experience. But Barack Obama said, “Yes we can!” and despite all odds against him, he went on to victory and became the 44th President of the United States..

A Positive Thinker Revitalizes an Ailing Owen Corning

Companies are either growing or dying. There is no in-between. It’s hard to think positively when a company is dying. Famed Owen Corning was dying. A recapitalization after fending off a hostile takeover left the company $1.65 billion in long term debt. The company had retrenched to such a degree that investment in research development, sales . . . everything virtually stopped. Sales plummeted by $74 million. Then, the CEO they brought in to try and turn things around was taken seriously ill. He retired after a little over a year at the helm. Mighty Owen Corning was drifting toward a downward spiral. Enter Glen Hiner. Hiner had already proven himself running the plastics division of General Electric. There, he had grown a $750 million business to $5 billion during a thirteen-year tenure. A positive thinker doesn’t think about additional opportunities for retrenching. A positive thinker like Hiner immediately thought about for opportunities for expansion.

Here was a company on a downward spiral and worried about just keeping its head above water. Hiner shook things up by immediately setting the goal of reaching $5 billion by the year 2000. Owen Corning was at $2.8 billion in sales at the time. It was only eight years to the year 2000, but since Hiner had done it before at GE, no doubt he calculated that he could do it faster since he learned a lot the first time. Moreover, he set goals of almost doubling international sales and increasing productivity at 6% per year and profitability twice as fast as sales. I imagine you would agree that Hiner expected positive results!

Now I don’t want to suggest that simply being a positive thinker and expecting positive results is enough. You can’t simply sit back and expect the results to roll in. Hiner got the company to rethink a lot of their former assumptions about the business. He made important acquisitions, and moved capital around to concentrate resources where it was most important to have them, and where they could be decisive. He lent his personal prestige and was on the spot and seen at important projects. He brought some talented people on board to help him, fired some that weren’t getting the job done, and reassigned others. In other words, he orchestrated the execution of the company’s new initiatives. Moreover, as Hiner said, “. . . I’m a pretty good cheerleader, good at touching people and giving them a few kisses.”[7] All of this together got the company moving toward the goals Hiner articulated. But consider this. Could Hiner have got any of this done if he hadn’t of been 100% positive. Do you think Hiner could have got the company out of its “hold-on-to-what-we-have” mentality if he had been a leader with less positive feelings?

Well, what were the results? How did Glen Hiner and Owen Corning do as a result of his expecting positive results? When he retired in 2002, sales had grown to $5 billion, with operations in more than 30 countries on 6 continents.[8] General Powell went on to even greater things and became Secretary of State. Many said that he could have become president. He always maintained: “Perpetual optimism is a force multiplier.”[9]

Visualize the Results You Want To Achieve

If you want to learn to expect positive results, you’ve got to see those results achieved in your own mind first. Psychologists call this mental visualization, and it is amazing what can be done with it. Mental visualization seems to work best in a very relaxed state, and I have witnessed as well as been involved in a number of experiments which illustrate just how powerful mental visualization is.

My wife is a clinical psychologist, and I studied psychology at the graduate level myself. As a consequence, I attended a number of seminars on hypnosis, many with her. Under a hypnotic trance, a subject is extremely relaxed and open to suggestion. One sequence while entranced is to have the subject imagine himself in a lemon grove, to pick a lemon, slice it in half and squeeze a bit into his mouth and taste the lemon.  When you do this, your lips invariably pucker as you imagine the sweet-sour juice from the lemon in your mouth. One theory about hypnosis is that all hypnosis is really self-hypnosis, and to become entranced is quite easy. In fact, if you found yourself pucker your lips when you thought about the lemon juice, you did it to yourself! But there is more. When in hypnotic trance, a subject, after some visualization techniques, can be told that a cube of ice applied to the subject’s bare skin is red hot. Believe it or not, it will actually raise a blister! However, one of the most amazing stories I ever heard about the power of mental visualization, especially regarding its use in expecting positive results, comes from a psychologist by the name of Charles Garfield. I first heard about Garfield from an article I read in The Wall Street Journal more than a quarter of a century ago. The article said that through visualization techniques and visualizing a positive outcome, Garfield was able to significantly increase the speaking performance of top executives. Later, Garfield wrote a book in which he described an incident which definitely proved his point.

At a conference on peak performance in Milan, Italy, Garfield met some Russian scientists who began to discuss their current work. Learning that Garfield was an amateur weight lifter, they invited him to participate in an experiment. The scientists learned that in the bench press exercise Garfield had been able to press 280 pounds. They asked him what was the most he thought he could do. Garfield told them 300 pounds. After some encouragement, Garfield pressed the 300 pounds. However, the press was made with great difficulty and it required every ounce of his strength and concentration to do it. Next, the Russians put Garfield into a relaxed state and took him through a series of visualization exercises.  During these exercises, he was told to visual himself lifting 365 pounds, which to Garfield seemed utterly impossible. However, not only was he able to do this, but he felt it was easier to make this lift than to lift the 300 pounds he had done an hour or so earlier with far greater difficulty![10]

To use visualization to expect positive results is not difficult. Sit where you can relax and simply visualize your goal in every detail. If your goal is to make a speech, then imagine yourself on the stage waiting to be introduced. Hear the introduction given for you. Are these flowers on the dais? Smell their fragrance. Are some waiters still serving coffee? Listen to the sounds they make as they move about the room. Smell the aroma of the coffee. Sip some yourself, and savor its taste. Use all five senses to make the scene as real in your mind as you possibly can. Even listen to the applause as you are called forward to begin your presentation. Imagine looking out into the audience and visualize the eager and expectant looks on the faces of those who are about to listen to you. Now, give your speech and note the audience’s rapt attention. See yourself connecting with audience, and see the audience responding to what you have to say, and hanging on to every word. Finally see yourself coming to a powerful conclusion, and see the audience leaping to their feet in their enthusiasm.

After you have done this once, repeat it again. I recommend repeating this several times a day. The night before your performance, you can repeat it a dozen times or more times. You will be amazed at the results. Brigadier General William C. Louisell, who commanded infantry units in both Korea and Vietnam and was wounded in action with the enemy in both wars noted  that that on the battlefield, a leader must “ . . . apply a realistic imagination to visualize the mission through to its successful conclusion.”[11]  Call it “realistic” or by some other name . . . it works.

Be Real

You can’t be someone you are not.  But, the reality is it makes no difference. We’re all different, but we all have the potential for being competent, even outstanding, leaders.  Too many leaders try to be what they are not. They may be kind and thoughtful, and yet are afraid to display these qualities. They may have read management books somewhere that extolled a tough leadership style. So they want to be seen as tough. Or maybe they heard that “the new leader” always has a  participatory style.  So they strive for follower participation, even when it is in appropriate. Or maybe they try to be overly friendly, when by nature they are more reserved.

Dick Leavitt flew in combat in Korea and was a wing commander in Vietnam. He retired from the Air Force while a Lieutenant General and Vice Commander of the Strategic Air Command. After retirement, he first became senior vice president of Cessna Aircraft Company, and then president of other corporations. After thinking through some questions I had posed about combat leadership, he added: “After watching many units perform in and out of combat, I have concluded that a leader must be himself. It is less important whether a leader is authoritarian or participative. Assuming what a leader is not is very dangerous because stress will usually cause a leader to revert to his “natural” personality. When that happens, his followers become unsure of him and quickly lose confidence.”[12]General Louisell, the infantry commander agrees. “The leader’s style must be consistent with his character and personality, otherwise he will be marked as a phony by those he leads.  Regardless of his personal style, he must have a highly contagious fire in his belly.”[13]

Maintain Your Enthusiasm

If you aren’t enthusiastic about something, no one else will be. That’s a fact. You can’t expect followers to enthusiastically accept a challenge that you haven’t enthusiastically accepted yourself. Some say that one reason for the failure of Confederate General George Pickett’s charge at Gettysburg during the Civil War was that his superior, General James Longstreet lacked enthusiasm for making the attack. Previously, he tried everything to persuade General Robert E. Lee not to order the charge, but he was unsuccessful. Having earlier given General Pickett a warning order, he was leaning dejectedly against a fence railing when Pickett came to him to receive the order to proceed.

“General, shall I advance?” asked Pickett saluting. Longstreet returned the salute, but his head bowed, said nothing.  Pickett repeated his request. Still not getting a response, he asked, “If it is your desire that I proceed, nod your head.” Longstreet, head still bowed, nodded his head in the affirmative. Pickett’s charge, certainly one of the most gallant in history, was also one of the most costly. Out of 10,500 who made the advance, only 4830 came back to Confederate lines unscathed and despite these heavy losses, the charge failed. [14] General Longstreet was not enthusiastic about this charge. He did not expect positive results.

How to Maintain Enthusiasm When Times are Rough

In December 1950, the Chinese crossed the border into Korea in overwhelming numbers. United Nation forces under General Douglas MacArthur withdrew to avoid capture. Colonel “Chesty” Puller led a regiment of United States Marines in retreat from the Chinese border to the port of Hungnam in North Korea. It was the bitter cold of winter, but the Marines had only their summer uniforms. They had wounded, limited food, and the Marines had gone for days with little sleep. Yet, Puller was upbeat and positive. He told his troops:

“You’re the First Marine Division, and don’t you forget it. We’re the greatest military outfit that ever walked on this earth. Not all the communists in hell can stop you. We’ll go down to the sea at our own pace and nothing is going to get in our way. If it does, we’ll blow the hell out of it.”

Puller got his regiment to the port of Hungnam successfully.  There, it was evacuated to fight another day. Puller eventually retired from the Marines with the three stars of a lieutenant general. Puller is also the only man in U.S. military history to win the Navy Cross, the decoration that is second only to the Congressional Medal of Honor, five times! Puller knew how to maintain his enthusiasm and expect positive results.

I’ve found that if I’m not enthusiastic about a project even though I believe in it, that I can get worked up about it if it makes sense. Once I am excited and enthusiastic, I automatically expect positive results. How can you get worked up about something if you are not initially? Well first I may be unenthusiastic for a variety of reasons. Maybe I’ve got something else pending that also needs to be done. Maybe I need more help. Maybe I haven’t got everything figured out yet. What I do is think of all the good things that will happen when I complete this project or task. When I understand the situation thoroughly and see how it can be done, I’m feel a better about it. Before long, I find that I am enthusiastic and eager to begin.

Before General Patton led the North African landings which were the first American successes during World War II, he didn’t see how he would be able to lead such a large force. The last time he had led in combat had been during World War I. He had been a colonel and he led a small force of tanks. Now he was leading thousands. However, then he asked himself if there was anyone who could better lead these troops to victory. He could think of no one who could do it better than himself. He became enthusiastic and expected positive results.


If you want followers to follow your lead and expect to win, then you must do so first. If you expect positive results, others will as well. To expect positive results as a leader:

  • Become a Positive Thinker
  • Visualize the Results You Want To Achieve
  • Be Real
  • Maintain Your Enthusiasm

Simply expecting positive results does not guarantee your success. However, not expecting positive results will almost always guarantee your failure. So to increase your chances of success in any situation that you face:




[1] Dodd, Mathew, “The Gunfight at Takur Ghar,” PTSD, January 21, 2009, Accessed at , January 21, 2009

[2] Drucker, Peter F., The Practice of Management, (New York: Harper and Row, 1955) p.194.

[3] Grant, Michael, Classical Historians (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1992) p. 101.

[4] Xenophon, The Persian Expedition, translated by Rex Warner,(Baltimore: Penguin Books, 1949) p. 104

[5] Vandenberg, Hoyt S.,  Jr.  Letter to the author,  July 5, 1993

[6] Powell, Clin L., “Address to Los Angeles Times Management Conference, March 19, 1993.

[7] Stewart, Thomas A., “Back from the Dead,” Fortune (May 26, 1997) p. 126